martes, 14 de octubre de 2008

Angkor Wat. La Ciudad Sagrada de Camboya


Angkor fue una antigua ciudad importante del imperio Jemer entre los siglos IX y XV de nuesta era. Sus ruinas se encuentran cerca de la actual Ciudad de Siem Riep, Provincia de Siem Riep, Reino de Camboya. La UNESCO los ha declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad en el año 1992.

Angkor es una antigua palabra del sánscrito para referirse a ciudad; las palabras thom y wat son del actual Idioma jemer para "grande" y "pagoda" respectivamente. Así pues Angkor Thom se puede entender como la Gran Ciudad y Angkor Wat como la Ciudad del Templo. Para entender la organización y construcción de los templos es conveniente fijarse en el origen simbólico del Monte Meru, considerado como el hogar de los dioses y el centro del universo hindu.

El monte Meru
El monte Meru es una montaña mítica, que es considerada sagrada en varias culturas. Los tibetanos consideran que el monte Meru es el mismo monte Kailāsh (que está ubicado en Tíbet). Para algunos hindúes, el monte Meru está compuesto de 109 picos, de los que el monte Kailās es el más alto (donde se encuentra la morada del dios Shiva). En esos picos viven además 33 millones de dioses (entre los que se destacan Vishnú y Brahmā).

En cambio para el hinduismo tradicional, el monte Meru tiene 450.000 kilómetros de altura, tiene forma de cono truncado muy alargado, consta de un solo pico, y no se encuentra en este planeta sino en el centro del universo (en Jambudwipa).

En cambio según el texto épico Mahā Bhārata (3.503 y 3.1697), el Harivilās y el Rig Veda (3.4.44 y 3.4.27), el monte Kailash se encuentra físicamente en los montes Himalaya.

Bajo el monte Meru se encuentran cuatro continentes mitológicos con siete cordilleras montañosas, que están rodeados por siete océanos concéntricos: el más interno, de agua salada (el único que conocemos los seres humanos), luego de agua dulce, de leche, de ghi (mantequilla clarificada), etc.

Al final de estas barreras hay una puerta con unos guardianes en cada uno de los puntos cardinales principales: por ejemplo en el este se encuentra el dios Indra (rey de los dioses, dios del cielo, del rayo) con su elefante Airavata (según algunos, de tres cabezas).

Después de estas cuatro entradas está el océano primordial, que se considera infinito.




imágenes: Daniel Cheong


imágenes: caimán dragón




imágenes: Stuck in Customs





imágenes: anna


Más información de Angkor Wat: Javier Molinero

también puedes ver el VIDEO:
Angkor Wat: Joyas en la Jungla

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